G.N.R. – SMAR 2024

7th International Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures


G.N.R. will participate in SMAR 2024 in Salerno and will give a lecture on the topics of prestressing loss and X-ray diffraction on tension cables in prestressed concrete structures.

SMAR – 7th International Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures,
4th to 6th of September 2024 in Salerno, Italy.


X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical method that provides reliable answers to many questions relating to materials science and industrial applications. The applications can be found in quality control and the optimisation of process parameters in manufacturing processes. Areas of application include geology, chemistry, pharmacy, mechanics, the semiconductor industry, nanomaterials, additive manufacturing, etc.

X-ray diffraction is a technique with complex aspects of data interpretation and instrument standardisation. This limits the application to methods that are dependent on the sample size and preparation.

Similar to the traditional powder diffraction techniques already used in the construction industry, X-ray diffraction has been used for years in mechanical engineering to determine residual stresses.

In the past, potential applications in the construction sector have been reported, but the size of the instruments available to date has prevented their actual use, despite their proven potential and applicability. Over the last four years, an intensive research campaign in Italy has evaluated the measurement of the stress state of the prestressed cables of prestressed concrete structures.

The aim of the dissertation presented is to provide participants with general information on the physical principles of X-ray diffraction and to demonstrate the current possibilities for measuring the stress state.

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GNR - X-ray and optical emission spectrometer systems

GNR was founded in 1984 in Milan (Italy) by Mario Gungui and Antonio Nigro. They took over OPTICA srl, one of the first and best-known European companies in the field of analytical measurement technology.

The continuous efforts made by GNR throughout the years of its activity have enabled the company to occupy a prominent place among the world’s most important manufacturers of optical emission spectrometers (OES) and to supply GNR devices all over the world.

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